Friday, March 29, 2013


A good communicator is one who cans takes himself/herself to the level of the person or group whom he/she is addressing. To me communication is about exchange of ideas and information in the simplest manner so that it can be easily sends and then easily decoded by the receiver. Also, a feedback by the receiver will make it more effective. A good communicator must have five communication skills (reading, writing. speaking, and listening, non-verbal communication)
As a good communicator DR. Muhammad Yunus is one of them.
As a speaker:
                   As a speaker Dr. yunus voice is much strong.his speech is to change the world from poverty. We can say him as an artist of speaking.  Because by his idea and speech now rural poor people are interested to be self confident. His speech make a great affect every single person to be self dependent.
As a writer:
                   As a writer Dr. yunus is one of the best communicator. On ‘Micro-credit’ system and “social entrepreneur” he wrote so many books. This is so much famous to businessperson. In “Micro-credit’- micro loans to the poor and serves as a catalyst for improving social- economic conditions.
As a reader:
                    As a reader DR. yunus is one of the best communicator in this world. As an honorable person he has to read so many books, papers etc. in seminars, awards ceremony he gave all kind of information about economics. It is not possible without reading.
As a leader:
                   Listening is the most powerful form of communication. Dr. yunus is an excellent listener. He can accept any question. He knows that communication is not a kind of entertainment but hard work for the audience and oneself.
As a non verbal communicator:
                                                Just reading, writing, listing, speaking is not mentions a proper communicator. Non verbal communication is an important part for a good communicator. Dr. yunus is perfect person with his non verbal communication. By his non verbal communication he can express what his view point. And everything is just adjusted with him.

From the discussion we can say that Dr. yunus is  a good communicator. He will remain as a symbol of dedication, simplicity and greatness for the generations to come of our country and of the world.

Monday, March 18, 2013

The Judiciary of Bangladesh

The Judiciary of Bangladesh consists of a Supreme Court, subordinate courts and tribunals. ===The Supreme Court=== The Supreme Court of Bangladesh comprises the Appellate Division and the High Court Division. It is the apex Court of the country and other Courts and Tribunals are subordinate to it.

The Appellate Division

The Appellate Division shall have Jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals from judgments, decrees, orders or sentences of the High Court Division. It has rule making power for regulating the practice and procedure of each division and of any Court subordinate to it. Chancery Research and Consultants Trust (CRC-Trust) maintains a website Chancery Law Chronicles-First ever Online Database of Bangladesh Laws where it has already included 4500 judgements of the Appellate Division and High Court Division of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh from 1972 to till date.

The High Court Division

The High Court Division, though a Division of the Supreme Court, is for all practical purposes, an independent court with its powers, functions and jurisdictions well defined and determined under the Constitution and different laws. It has both appellate as well as original jurisdiction. It hears appeals from orders, decrees and judgments of subordinate courts and tribunals. It has original jurisdiction to hear Writ Applications under article 102 of the Constitution, which is known as extra ordinary constitutional jurisdiction. It has further original jurisdiction, inter alia, in respect of company and admiralty matters under statutes. The High Court Division, in special circumstances, has also powers and jurisdiction to hear and dispose of cases as the court of first instance under article 101 of the Constitution. The High Court Division shall have Superintendence and control over all Courts and tribunals subordinate to it.

The Subordinate Courts and Tribunals

There are a wide variety of subordinate courts and tribunals. Such courts and tribunals are created by some relevant statutes. All their powers, functions and jurisdictions are well determined by the respective statutes. These are the basic courts in the system of the judiciary of Bangladesh. The major bulk of the cases, both civil and criminal, are tried and heard in such courts and tribunals. Certain tribunals are termed as administrative tribunals, Nari-o-Shishu Nirjato Daman Tribunals, Special Tribunals etc. Such courts and tribunals spread all over the country at district levels. The subordinate courts in Bangladesh can be divided in two broad classes, namely, civil courts and criminal courts.

Civil Courts

The civil courts are created under the Civil Courts Act of 1887. The Act provides for five tiers of civil courts in a district, which bottom-up are:
  • Court of Assistant Judge,≤
  • Court of Senior Assistant Judge,≤
  • Court of Joint District Judge,≤
  • Court of Additional District Judge and ≤
  • Court of District Judge.
The first three are courts of first instances with powers, functions and jurisdictions in respect of subject matter, territory and pecuniary value determined by or under statutes.
The rest two are generally courts of appeal in civil matters. now the civil suits are rapidly disclose in the court:

Criminal Courts

  • Courts of Sessions
  • Courts of Metropolitan Sessions
  • Special courts/tribunals (Criminal)
  • Courts of Metropolitan Magistrate
  • Courts of Magistrate

Legal profession

The academic systems of the country allow two separate systems of qualifying legal degrees in Bangladesh which are college-oriented two year LL.B. degrees and the University-based four-year LL.B. (Hons.) degrees which require more extensive academic commitment and the places at the universities remain competitive. Recently there has been a rise in the trend of obtaining foreign academic LL.B. degrees (especially from the UK).

External links

Tawfique Imam Khan Anik

Friday, March 15, 2013

The Nature & Beauty

 The fear of death follows
from the fear of life.
A man who lives fully is
prepared to die at any time.

Desire is the starting point of all achievement,
not a hope, not a wish,
but a keen pulsating desire,
which transcends everything.

If your problem is
as big as a ship,
never forget that Allah's blessings are
as wide as an ocean."

Twenty years from now you will be

more disappointed by the things that you
didn't do than by the ones you did do.
So throw off the bowlines.
Sail away from the safe harbour.
Catch the trade winds in your sails.
Explore. Dream. Discover.

There is No Royal Road to Success,
But after Success Every Road Becomes Royal,
Best wishes for those who believe in Struggle!

 People become really quite remarkable
when they start thinking that they can do things.
When they believe in themselves
they have the first secret of success.

What we can or cannot do,

what we consider possible or impossible,
is rarely a function of our true capability.
It is more likely a function of our
beliefs about who we are.
 Good relationships are like trees
They demand attention & care in the beginning
but once they blossoms
they provide U shade in all situations of life

The secret of health for both mind and body
is not to mourn for the past,
not to worry about the future,
nor to anticipate troubles,
but to live in the present
moment wisely and earnestly.

For true success ask

yourself these four questions:
Why not?
Why not me?
Why not now?
(James Allen

Change is a nature of life

But challenge is a aim of life
So you have to challenge the changes
But not 2 change the challenges.

Every human has four endowments

independent will
creative imagination.
These give us the ultimate human freedom...
The power to choose, to respond, to change.

 Death is not the biggest fear we have;

our biggest fear is taking the risk to be alive --
the risk to be alive and express what we really are.
 "Every successfull person has a painfull story"
"Every painfull story has a successfull ending"
Accept the pain
get ready to success.

Unexpected results & Problems r part of life.

Never loose HOPE in any condition,
bcoz darkness of night always finish with light of day.
Human can live about 20days without food,
about 3days without water,
about 5 mints without air
not for 1secnd without HOPE.

 A good plan of today

is better than a great plan of tomorrow.
Look backward with satisfaction
& look forward with confidence.

"Life is like a novel and every day is a new page.
so if a page is sad next will b happy..
so don't worry turn the page and enjoy the life..

Give thousand chances to your enemy

To become your friend.
But never give a single chance to your Friend
To become your enemy.

 The most determinative sentence

which should alwayz be followed in life-

 Anything is more important
when you can not get it.
When you can get it
this is less important for you.
This is nature of every human.

 A Good Heart And A Good Nature

Are Two Different Issues,
A Good Heart Can Win Many Relationships,
But A Good Nature
Can Win An Sustain Life Long Relationship

Nothing in the nature lives for itself
Rivers don't drink their own water
Trees don't eat their own fruit
Sun doesn't give heat for itself
Moon doesn't ever go on honeymoon
Flowers don't spread fragrance for themselves
Living for Others is the Rule of Nature.

Thursday, March 14, 2013

What is equity?

If asked ‘what is equity?’ the addressee will likely respond that: equity is to do what is fair; it means to do justice; it is to do what is right. The list could continue. If the question is posed after the year 1875—which was the year when the rules of equity became fully developed—the addressee could easily say, as Maitland once said, that ‘it is that body of rules which is administered only by those courts which are known as Courts of Equity’(Maitland Equity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1947) at 1). But it would be incorrect to defi ne equity as such today because there are no courts that can now be called courts of equity.

Furthermore, one may also defi ne equity in the years post 1875 as ‘that body of rules administered by the English courts of Justice which, were it not for the operation of the Judicature Act, would be administered only by those courts known as Courts of Equity’(Maitland at 1). As with the previous defi nition, this latest one is poor because, despite acknowledging that equity forms a part of the substantive English law, it
describes this part and distinguishes it from other aspects of the law by reference to courts that are no longer in existence.

We may even add another drawback to such a handicapped defi nition of equity as just given. In stating that equitable rules, or the rules of equity, are administered by English courts of justice after 1875, we raise certain ambiguities as to what part of equity is now administered with common law. As will be seen later, while the Judicature Acts undoubtedly brought equity and common law together within one judicial system, the question remains as to what the exact effects of these Acts are. Did the Acts ‘fuse’ the rules of equity and common laws—which undoubtedly used to be administered separately by different courts before 1875—or did they simply ‘unify’ or ‘amalgamate’ the previous different administrations of equity and common law and entrust this upon the shoulder of a single court?

Equity is the means by which a system of law balances out the need for certainty in rule making on the one hand, with the need for suffi cient judicial discretion to achieve fairness in individual factual circumstances on the other.

Equity is a body of principles, doctrines, and rules developed originally by the old Court of Chancery in constructive competition with the rules, doctrines, and principles of Common Law Courts but now applied, since the Judicature Acts, 1873–5, by the unifi ed Supreme Court of England and Wales.

The salient features of British Constitution(1999).

Introduction :  “The English Constitution has made a great circuit of the globe and has become a common possession of civilized man”. (G. B Adams)
A Constitution means certain principles on which the Government of the State is organized and which determines the relations between the people and the Government the Constitution of U.K is unique in nature and has provided inspiration for a number of other constitutions in the world.

Salient Features of U.K Constitution :  Following are the salient features of the U.K Constitution.

I. Unwritten:
The British Constitution is unwritten in nature but it does not imply that all of its parts are unwritten. It means that it has not been reduced to writing in a single document. Some of the components are found in written from. Such as the Reform Act, 1832, the Parliament Act of 1911 etc.

II. Evolution Growth:
British Constitution is a result of an evolutionary growth. Constitution efforts as well as needs of time shaped its spontaneous growth.

III. Flexible Constitution:
British Constitution is a flexible Constitution and parliament can amend it like alterations in the statutory laws by a simple majority.

IV. Unitary:
British has unitary constitution. All powers of the state are concentrated in the hands of a single government for the whole country. There are no units or states in British.

V. Bicameralism:
The Parliament consists of two chambers House of Lords and House of Commons. The Houseof commons is a popular chamber whose member directly elected by the people while the house of lords is basically a hereditary chamber and its member are nominated by the Queen.

VI. Supremacy Of The Parliament:
In U.K, Parliament has complete Supremacy or sovereignty. No law enacted by the parliament can be challenged in the court on the plea that is against the constitution.
According To De Loeme:
“British Parliament can do everything except to make a man into a woman”.

VII. Constitution Monarchy:
From Constitution point of view, the crown is the repository of the entire Government of authority in British.

VIII. Contrast In Theory And Practice:
There is sharp contrast between theory and practice in U.K. As ogg points out that “theoretically, British Government is absolute monarch, its government from signifies constitution monarchy while in practice, the Government structure is closer to republican from.

IX. Collective Responsibility:
Ministers must stand together and they cannot oppose the government policy every minister is also individually responsible to the House of Commons and the crown.

X. Limited Separation Of Power:
In British, there is limited Separation of power. There is concentration of political powers in the parliament while the cabinet which exercise executive power is just a committee of the parliament. Nevertheless many safeguards have been provided especially under Act of Settlement of 1701 to secure the independence of judiciary from under influence on the part of other two branches on the Government.

XI. Independence Of Judiciary:
Necessary safeguards have been provided against all sorts of interference in judicial process. Judges are paid liberal salaries and ensured security security of service.

XII. Rule Of Law:
U.K Constitution provides rule of law. The principle of rule of law may be defined as that none of the person in above or below the law. All the persons are equal in the eyes of law. F any person violates the law, he should face the trial of the case in the Government and no person is given imprisonment until his offence is proved in the court.

XIII. Fundamental Rights:
Fundamental rights of the citizens have not been incorporated in the from of a list in the English Constitution. Constitution law is not the creator but a product of fundamental rights, which have been recognized from time to time by the Courts.

Conventions play a vital role in the British political system. A government is formed and removed on the basis of convention. As Prof. Smith says that the conventions are main living source behind the Constitution.

XV. Two Party System:
Two party system is flourished in British right from the beginning of the parliamentary period. Before the emergence of the present labour party in the second decay of the present century, the fight was between the conservatives and the Liberal party, but now the liberal party has lost its political significance.

XVI: Universal Adult Sufferage:
Every individual of the age of 18 has the right to vote.

XVII. Mixed Constitution:
The British Constitution is a mixture of the monarchical, aristocratic and democratic principal.

XVIII. Conservativeness :
The British Constitution is a symbol of Conservativeness. The trend of the people of U.K is absolutely n favour of old institutions and this concept is existence of conservatism.

XIX. Establishment Of Local Government Institutions:
The existence of local Government in U.K. Constitution is another comprehensive feature of the Constitution. Local Government institution are symbols of the civil liberties and freedom of the people.

XX. Unreality:
Another characteristic of the English Constitution is its unreality. It has righty been pointed out that nothing in it is what seems or seems what it.

To conclude, I can say, that U.K. Constitution in neither absolutely unwritten nor absolutely written. It is a combination of both and has made a circuit for the globe and has become the common possession of civilized man.

The legal sources of the British constitution

It follows from this that, in the absence of a formal constitution, the legal sources of the
British constitution are the same as the sources of law generally:

• European Union law
The law of the European Union is incorporated into English law by virtue of the
European Communities Act 1972, which came into force on 1 January 1973. In order
to enable European Union law to apply uniformly across the Union, it prevails over the
law of individual member states.

• Acts of Parliament
For matters not affected by the European Union, Acts of Parliament have the highest
status in the United Kingdom.

• Equity
The principles of equity were originally designed to correct defi ciencies in the common
law, and developed into a system of its own.

• Common law
This is the law developed by the judges in cases coming before the courts.

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

The Citizenship Act, 1951

Object---to provide for citizenship of Bangladesh
Definition Alien—who is not a citizen of Bangladesh or Commonwealth citizen Minor—any person who has not completed  the age of twenty-one years.

Acquisition of citizenship

Ø  By birth---Section 4-a person born in Bangladesh after the  commencement of this Act

--his father is not a citizen of Bangladesh and posses such immunity from suit and legal processes as is accorded to an envoy of an external sovereign power accredited in Bangladesh.
--his father is an enemy alien and the birth occurs in a place then under occupation by the enemy.

Ø  By descent--- Section 5 -a person whose father is a citizen of Bangladesh at the time of his birth
But If the father of such person is a citizen of Bangladesh by descent only, that person  shall not be a citizen of Bangladesh unless---that person’s birth having occurred in  country outside Bangladesh the birth is registered at a Bangladesh Consulate or Mission in that country--that person’s father is, at the time of the Birth, in the service of any Government in Bangladesh.

Ø  By migration—Section 6--a person who with the intention of residing in Bangladesh permanently, has migrated here from outside and has resided no less than one year may apply for a certificate of domicile under Article 17 and then For the citizenship of Bangladesh.

Ø  By Naturalization---Section 9--a person who has been granted a certificate of  naturalization under the Naturalization Act, 1926 may be registered as a citizen of Bangladesh A certificate of naturalization may be granted  upon the fulfillment of the following conditions:
      -----The applicant is not a minor.
    -----He is neither a citizen of Bangladesh nor  A subject of any state of which a citizen of Bangladesh is  prevented by or under any law from becoming a subject by  naturalization.
     -----He has resided in Bangladesh throughout  the period of twelve months immediately preceding the date of     application and during the seven years for a period amounting in the aggregate to not less than four years.
     -----He is of good character.
     -----He has an adequate knowledge of Bengali.
     -----He intends to reside in Bangladesh or to  enter or continue in the service of the Republic in Bangladesh.

By marriage---Section 10--A woman who has been married to a citizen of Bangladesh may on application be registered as a citizen of Bangladesh.

Deprivation of Citizenship---Section 16: Deprivation of Citizenship
--- obtained certificate of domicile or naturalization by means of fraud, false representation or the concealment of any material fact.
--- certificate of naturalization is revoked.
--- disloyalty or disaffection to the Constitution of Bangladesh.
--- during a war in which Bangladesh is or has been engaged, unlawfully traded or communicated with the enemy to assist them.
--- within 5 years of being naturalized been sentenced in any country to imprisonment for not less then twelve month.
--- residing outside Bangladesh continuously for seven years without following proper procedure.

Tawfique Imam Khan Anik

Monday, March 11, 2013

Introduction to Computers

What Is A Computer?
A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process),and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.

Devices that comprise a computer system
Printer (output)
Monitor (output)
Speaker (output)
Scanner (input)
Mouse (input)
Keyboard (input)
System unit
(processor, memory…)
Storage devices
(CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk, zip,…)

What Does A Computer Do?
Computers can perform four general operations, which comprise the information processing cycle.

Data and Information
All computer processing requires data, which is a collection of raw facts, figures and symbols, such as numbers, words, images, video and sound, given to the computer during the input phase.Computers
manipulate data to create information. Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful.During the output Phase, the information that has been created is put into some form, such as a printed report.The information can also be put in computer storage for future use.

Why Is A Computer So Powerful?
The ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed.Reliability (low failure
rate).Accuracy.Ability to store huge amounts of data and information.Ability to communicate with other

How Does a Computer Know what to do?
It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a compute program or software, that tells it exactly what to do.Before processing a specific job, the computer program corresponding to that job must be stored in
memory.Once the program is stored in memory the compute can start the operation by executing the
program instructions one after the other.

What Are The Primary Components Of A Computer ?
Input devices.
Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit).
Output devices.
Storage devices.
Input Devices

The Keyboard
The most commonly used input device is the keyboard on which data is entered by manually keying in or typing certain keys. A keyboard typically has 101 or 105 keys.

The Mouse
Is a pointing device which is used to control the movement of a mouse pointer on the screen to make
selections from the screen. A mouse has one to five buttons. The bottom of the mouse is flat and contains a mechanism that detects movement of the mouse.

The Central processing Unit
The central processing unit (CPU) contains electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The CPU
interprets instructions to the computer, performs the logical and arithmetic processing operations, and causes the input and output operations to occur. It is considered the “brain” of the computer.

Memory also called Random Access Memory or RAM (temporary memory) is the main memory of the
computer. It consists of electronic components that store data including numbers, letters of the alphabet, graphics and sound. Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.Read Only Memory or ROM is memory that is etched on a chip that has start-up directions for your computer. It is permanent memory.

Amount Of RAM In Computers
The amount of memory in computers is typically measured in kilobytes or megabytes. One kilobyte (K or
KB) equals approximately 1,000 memory locations and one megabyte (M or MB) equals approximately one million locations A memory location, or byte, usually stores one character.Therefore, a computer with 8 MB of memory can store approximately 8 million characters. One megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text information.

Output Devices
Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use. The two output devices more commonly used are the printer and the computer screen.The printer produces a hard copy of your
output, and the computer screen produces a soft copy of your output.

Storage Devices
Auxiliary storage devices are used to store data when they are not being used in memory. The most common types of auxiliary storage used on personal computers are floppy disks, hard disks and CD-ROM drives.

Floppy Disks
A floppy disk is a portable, inexpensive storage medium that consists of a thin, circular, flexible plastic disk with a magnetic coating enclosed in a square-shaped plastic shell.

Structure Of Floppy Disks
Initially Floppy disks were 8-inches wide, they then shrank to 5.25 inches, and today the most widely used folly disks are 3.5 inches wide and can typically store 1.44 megabytes of data.A folly disk is a magnetic disk, which means that it used magnetic patterns to store data.Data in floppy disks can be read from and written to.Formatting is the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing.A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk.The disk’s storage locations are divided into pie-shaped sections called sectors.A sectors is capable of holding 512 bytes of data.A typical floppy stores data on both sides and has 80 tracks on each side with 18 sectors per track.

Hard Disks
Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal plates coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be magnetically recorded on the surface of the platters.
The hard disk platters spin at a high rate of speed, typically 5400 to 7200 revolutions per minute (RPM).
Storage capacites of hard disks for personal computers range from 10 GB to 120 GB (one billion bytes are called a gigabyte).

Compact Discs
A compact disk (CD), also called an optical disc, is a flat round, portable storage medium that is usually 4.75 inch in diameter.A CD-ROM (read only memory), is a compact disc that used the same laser technology as audio CDs for recording music. In addition it can contain other types of data such as text, graphics, and video.The capacity of a CD-ROM is 650 MB of data.

Computer Software
Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types:
 1. Operating system software 2. Application software.

Operating System Software
Operating system software tells the computer how to perform the functions of loading, storing and executing an application and how to transfer data.Today, many computers use an operating system that has a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides visual clues such as icon symbols to help the user. Microsoft Windows 98 is a widely used graphical operating system. DOS (Disk Operating System) is an older but still widely used operating system that is text-based.

Application Software
Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are:

 Word processing
 Electronic spreadsheet, Database, Presentation graphics.Word Processing software is used to create and print documents. A key advantage of word processing software is that users easily can make changes in documents.

Electronic Spreadsheets
Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. These numbers can be changed and the spreadsheet quickly recalculates the new results.

Database Software
Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities.

Presentation Graphics
Presentation graphic software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making the presentations. Using special projection devices, the slides display as they appear on the computer 

Tawfique Imam Khan